Welcome to SLS Stanford Law School

The Law Merchant, a precursor to modern commercial law, emphasised the freedom to contract and alienability of property. As nationalism grew in the 18th and 19th centuries, the Law Merchant was incorporated into countries’ local law under new civil codes. In contrast to English common law, which consists of enormous tomes of case law, codes in small books are easy to export and easy for judges to apply.

In presidential systems, the executive often has the power to veto legislation. Most executives in both systems are responsible for foreign relations, the military and police, and the bureaucracy. Ministers or other officials head a country’s public offices, such as a foreign ministry or defence ministry. The election Law News of a different executive is therefore capable of revolutionising an entire country’s approach to government. To pass legislation, a majority of the members of a legislature must vote for a bill in each house. Normally there will be several readings and amendments proposed by the different political factions.

  • Sharia law based on Islamic principles is used as the primary legal system in several countries, including Iran and Saudi Arabia.
  • Banking law and financial regulation set minimum standards on the amounts of capital banks must hold, and rules about best practice for investment.
  • It is the internal ecclesiastical law governing the Catholic Church , the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, and the individual national churches within the Anglican Communion.
  • This distinction is stronger in civil law countries, particularly those with a separate system of administrative courts; by contrast, the public-private law divide is less pronounced in common law jurisdictions.

There is no clear legal definition of the civil society, and of the institutions it includes. Most of the institutions and bodies who try to give a list of institutions exclude the political parties. In civil law systems such as those of Italy, France, Germany, Spain and Greece, there is a distinct category of notary, a legally trained public official, compensated by the parties to a transaction. This is a 16th-century painting of such a notary by Flemish painter Quentin Massys.

NYU School of Law Homepage

Both these codes influenced heavily not only the law systems of the countries in continental Europe (e.g. Greece), but also the Japanese and Korean legal traditions. Today, countries that have civil law systems range from Russia and Turkey to most of Central and Latin America. Sociology of law is a diverse field of study that examines the interaction of law with society and overlaps with jurisprudence, philosophy of law, social theory and more specialised subjects such as criminology. The institutions of social construction, social norms, dispute processing and legal culture are key areas for inquiry in this knowledge field.

Criminal Law

The boy said he would prefer the jewel back, so the apprentice gave it to him, but without the stones. Lord Chief Justice Pratt ruled that even though the boy could not be said to own the jewel, he should be considered the rightful keeper (“finders keepers”) until the original owner is found. In fact the apprentice and the boy both had a right of possession in the jewel , but the boy’s possessory interest was considered better, because it could be shown to be first in time. Consideration indicates the fact that all parties to a contract have exchanged something of value. Some common law systems, including Australia, are moving away from the idea of consideration as a requirement. The idea of estoppel or culpa in contrahendo, can be used to create obligations during pre-contractual negotiations.

United States Capitol

His research focuses on how legal institutions can best serve our shared values during times of financial distress. He has written on a wide range of topics, from benefit corporations to debtors’ prisons. Determining whether a federal court has subject matter jurisdiction over a non-class action case. Click on Copy Course and you’re all set to share your course with students.